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Table 1. Key Factors and Variables Considered for Experimental Design Factor


Iron Capacity


Iron Temperature Control Range Time in Ladle


Ladle Lining Type


Slag Dam Refractory Type Spout Refractory


FeSi Inoculation Method Metal Temperature Measurement


Manual Ladle 1,000 lbs +/- 40F


2-3 minutes ProCast 80 ProCast 80 BluRAM 60 In mold


Immersion probe


Autopour Ladle 3600 lbs +/- 100F


12-15 minutes (expected to be 7-8 minutes in auto transfer mode) ProCast 80 KRICON 70


PHLOCAST SiC 60


Powder in metal stream I-R pyrometer camera


Key factors considered in this study were related to the time for metal transfer and insulation issues in the AP ladle, that lead to lower pouring temperatures


runner and ingate system. T ere are two aspects of fi lter sizing:


the primary sizing is related to ensuring that the fi lter does not act as the choke. T e standard rule of thumb is the cross- sectional area of the fi lter should be at least 4-6 times that of the choke. T e secondary sizing requirement is


related to fi lter capacity, or the vol- ume of ductile iron that can be passed through the fi lter prior to blockage. Typically, this capacity is around 20-40


lb./square inch of fi lter. Filter pore size can be classifi ed as


fi ne, medium and large. In most appli- cations, medium or large openings are preferred. T e fi lter supplier can provide appropriate sizing sheets for particular castings and fi lter types. In the case of this project, the fi lter


was considered adequate for the specifi c application. Excellent guidelines are available for sizing and placing fi lters in gating system.


Step 4 – Preliminary Trials


It is important that trials be con- ducted with just a handful of variables. Proper experimental designs are required to ensure interaction eff ects are captured (eff ect of pouring time, temperature and chemistry together, for example). Pours were grouped by heat, and at least 10-20 molds were poured per heat. It is important to measure and document all variables related to the casting.


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