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increasingly damaged with thinner wall thickness. As for the V-notch cup mold, cracking finally initiated from the tip of notch at 5 seconds after pouring and propagated verti- cally along the notch. Terefore, with the only change in the wall thickness, the stress was gradually concentrated from intact mold to flat-notch mold to the V-notch mold, which eventually resulted in cracking. In this case, such phenomena could be well predicted through process simulation.


Summary and Conclusions A resin-bonded silica sand


mixture with 98.7% SiO2 and 1.3% phenolic resin binder was studied to develop a material model for casting process simulation. Tirty-six three- point bending tests were completed with an average fracture stress of 3.233 MPa and a standard deviation of 0.585. Inelastic behavior of this sand was found and elastic modulus was measured as 2,300 MPa from the


Fig. 6 These are the simulation and experi- mental results of three different geometry cup molds: (a) 1st principal stress from FEA casting simulation; (b) and (c) cup molds before and after pouring, respectively.


three-point bending tests. Density was also obtained from three-point bending samples as 1628 kg/m3.


Seven (7) uniaxial tensile tests were done with an average UTS of 1.450 MPa and a standard deviation of 0.258. Te data from mechanical tests are used to establish a material model for sand molds/cores in casting pro- cess simulation. Tree types of sand cup molds were made and poured with A356. Stress was increasingly concentrated from intact mold to flat-notch mold to V-notch mold, which eventually resulted in crack- ing. Casting process simulation was accomplished using a FEA code. Te simulation results confirmed


the locations of stress concentration, and demonstrated excellent accuracy with the actual temperature profiles and cracking locations. Te estab- lished material model for the sand mold, based on the actual mechanical test data, can be used to predict cast- ing defects related to cracking, such as veining defects.


Tis paper (17-002) was originally presented at the 2017 Metalcasting Congress in Milwaukee.


34 | MODERN CASTING July 2017


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