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In the three-point bending test, the top half of the sample is in compression while the bottom half is in tension, which is unlike the uniform stress in the cross-section area of tensile specimens.


ferent loading conditions, the inelastic behavior may mainly be to three-point bending tests. Te average fracture stress of the total 36 samples was calculated to be 3.233 MPa and standard deviation was 0.585. Te average elastic modulus was 2300 MPa. Sample mass was also measured and density was calculated as 1,628 kg/m3. Based on Gaussian probability


distribution function, the distribu- tion curve in Figure 3 indicates 31 samples fall in µ±0 region, 3 samples


in µ±20 and 1 µ±30. There is only one sample that is out of µ±30 region, indicating a good consis- tency in bending tests. As for tensile tests, the average ultimate tensile stress (UTS) was 1.450 MPa and standard deviation was 0.258. Te average fracture stress from three- point bending is about two times the average UTS from uniaxial tensile tests. A primary reason may be there is no axial load in a bending test as is in a tensile one. Instead, the beam type bending samples give rise to large shear deforma-


tions during tests. In the three-point bending test, the top half of the sample is in compression while the bottom half in tension, which is unlike the uniform stress in the cross-section area of tensile specimens. In this way, extra loading force, and thus higher fracture stress is required for three-point bending tests. To ensure a consistent curing con-


dition of tensile and bending samples for tests, a surface hardness test was employed as a quantitative measure to confirm the consistency. Hardness values were located in 60-70, with 20 being 1 mm penetration depth. Te sand surface hardness value in this study may not be comparable to other systems, and it is mainly used to provide a more dependable judgement of curing degree rather than looking at the curing color with naked eyes.


Temperature Profiles Comparison Temperature profiles of A356 from


32 | MODERN CASTING July 2017


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