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Fig. 3. This is the flow comparison for vertical filter print with filter print inlet and outlet areas significantly reduced at 6.5% filled.


Fig. 4. Shown is the flow comparison for vertical filter print with filter print inlet and outlet areas significantly reduced at 7.0% filled.


have sometimes been made to standard filter prints to save weight, increase yield and/or fit within pattern plate restrictions. An extreme example of this is shown in Figure 2.While this design results in a 35% weight reduction to the filter print design (0.9kgs, 2lbs), the flow characteristics in the filter print and gating system are adversely affected. Because of the sharp angles of the modified filter print inlet, the flow accelerates into the center of the filter inlet face and begins to move through the filter before completely filling up the filter print inlet area. Te flow characteristics for the standard filter print design show a more evenly dis- tributed flow pattern within the filter print inlet and at the filter inlet face. Tis comparison is shown in Figure 3. Te high filter inlet face velocities of


the reduced filter print inlet area design results in some very high filter exit face velocities as shown in Figure 4. Ideally, the filter should reduce flow


energy and turbulence by acting as a flow discontinuity. However, this effect is mitigated if only a small area of the filter is being utilized. Even at steady state, the reduced


Fig. 5. Here is the flow comparison for vertical filter print with filter print inlet and outlet areas significantly reduced at 10.0% filled (vertically sectioned).


Vertical Filter Print Example Te flow characteristics for a stan-


dard vertical filter print are shown in Figure 1, which shows a cross section through the middle of the filter print at 10% filled. Te colors represent flow velocities. Te flow is steady state in and


around the filter print. Te color scale goes from light blue (low velocity, near 0.2m/s (0.66 ft/s) to white (higher velocity, near 2.0 m/s (6.6 ft/s). Flow through the filter is approximately 0.3-0.4 m/s (1-1.3 ft/s), and the flow before the filter is laminar and covers the entire filter. Flow after the filter is uniform and stable. Tis image clearly shows the uni-


form flow, and the utilization of the entire filter face for both flow control


and filtration. It can be considered well-designed for this vertical filter print section of this study. In application, extreme changes


area filter print design does not allow the entire filter print inlet area to be used and instead pushes the metal through the center of the filter, as shown in Figure 5. Tis results in non-uniform flow behind the filter and the potential for turbulence. Contrast this with the uniform flow profile shown for the standard filter print design, particularly at the filter outlet face, the filter print outlet and downstream in the runner.


Fig. 6. This is the flow comparison for vertical filter print with filter print inlet and outlet areas significantly reduced at 10.0% filled (horizontally sectioned).


August 2017 MODERN CASTING | 37


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