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FOCUS ON: 22%15.5% ?


Cold turkey (with a little help)


Adult smokers who were smoke- free six months after quitting abruptly, according to a May 2016 Annals of Internal Medicine study


Smokers in the same study who were smoke- free six months after beginning to cut back grad- ually. Both groups used nicotine replacement and behavioral support from nurses.


Patches, gums, and other nicotine replacements


$800 50%-70%


Increase in long-term rate of quitting through nicotine replacement therapy, according to a November 2012 report by the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The review found no overall difference in effectiveness among different forms of nicotine replacement, such as patches, gums, and nasal and oral sprays.


Financial rewards


Making the effort Older adult smokers are less likely to stop smoking for more than one day in an effort to quit. Percentages of adult daily cigarette smokers who did just that in 2015:


For individual smokers trying to win back a $150 deposit of their own money — plus $650 more, the quit rate was 52.3 percent, according to a May 2015 New England Journal of Medicine study. The incentive nearly tripled the rate as compared with usual care.


A 2014 study appearing in the Journal of the American Medical Association netted similar results, with the prospect of receiving up to $750 producing a quit rate (14.7 percent) nearly three times as high as in the control group (5 percent).


Age


18–24 25–44 45–64


65 or older Total (all adult smokers)


Percentage who stopped for more than a day 66.7 59.8 49.6 47.2 55.4


Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention November 2017 TEXAS MEDICINE 9


Smoking cessation


PHYSICIANS ALWAYS TELL PATIENTS WHO SMOKE TO QUIT. BUT HOW? WHAT WORKS BEST? HERE ARE HOW POPULAR APPROACHES – INCLUDING THE RELATIVELY NEW AND UNPROVEN METHOD OF E-CIGARETTE USE – HAVE FARED IN SOME RECENT RESEARCH.


Electronic cigarettes


A cross-sectional study by Lung India, released in 2017, aimed to review “all published scientific literature” on e-cigarettes. The study found:


• 68 articles produced no clear result on smoking cessation effectiveness and called for more investigation;


• 45 articles didn’t support the use of e-cigarettes because of side effects and lack of success in getting people to quit; and


• 24 articles supported e-cigarettes as an “effective and nonharmful method for tobacco cessation.”


A 2017 study by the University of California San Diego and Moores Cancer Center researchers looked at data from the U.S. Current Population Survey-Tobacco Use Supplement. Their research found e-cigarette users were more likely than nonusers to attempt to quit smoking, with 65.1 percent of users trying in 2014–15, and the overall population quit rate rising to 5.6 percent from the previous 4.5 percent.


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